On March 31st, the artist Winfred Rembert died, at the age of seventy-five. He became once born in 1945 and grew up in Cuthbert, Georgia, the save he picked cotton as a baby. As a teen-ager, he received enraged about the civil-rights motion and became once arrested in the aftermath of a demonstration. He later broke out of detention heart, survived a detailed to-lynching, and spent seven years in prison, the save he became once pressured to labor on chain gangs. Following his commence, in 1974, he married Patsy Gammage, and they sooner or later settled in Original Haven, Connecticut. At the age of fifty-one, with Patsy’s encouragement, he started carving and painting memories from his formative years onto leather, the utilize of leather-tooling abilities he had realized in prison. I met Rembert in 2015, while I became once working on a book about felony justice. He knowledgeable me he wished to part his lifestyles legend in his bear phrases but predominant lend a hand writing it. From 2018 to 2020, I visited his dwelling every two weeks or so that you just can interview him. I transcribed and arranged his reflections and then learn the pages lend a hand to him. Every time we met, we dug deeper into Rembert’s thoughts about what he had lived thru.
—Erin I. Kelly
I’ve painted slightly a number of photos of the chain gang. I believed that many of us in the free world thought atrocious of the chain gang. They looked at the workers on the chain gang, working on the highways and in the ditches, and I mediate they thought that every and every one the guys had been killers. With the paintings, I became once looking to monitor that it wasn’t that suggests.
Morgan, Georgia, in 1971 became once one of the worst places I’ve ever been. There ain’t a minute I will mediate of when the warden at Morgan became once appropriate. No longer one minute. He didn’t give a rattling what I knew or what I could perchance presumably perchance perchance contribute to his camp. He didn’t care that I had turn true into a model prisoner. He didn’t care about the incontrovertible truth that I became once trustworthy and might perchance presumably perchance perchance also merely work with out a guard over me. I knowledgeable him that I could perchance presumably perchance perchance manufacture roads and operate all kinds of equipment. He didn’t care nothing about that. He put me out there on laborious labor.
Morgan became once all about work and busting you down. No longer valid bodily but in a psychological capacity, too. Everybody became once locked down tight. They didn’t don’t have any motion. There became once no playing around, no freedom. The only component they would enable you construct became once to pass in the yard on Sundays. There became once a massive yard with a colossal fence. On Sundays, we would play basketball and throw the soccer around and the inmates would consult with each and every other. Other than that, we had been tied down. No freedom. And the warden is sitting there exterior the fence, along with his guards, valid taking a have a look at you bask in he owns you or something. That’s the capacity it felt to me.
You had to pass out in these caged vehicles—lend a hand of the truck constructed bask in a cage. You might perchance presumably perchance dart out with ten or twelve guys. You’d climb in the truck, sit down, and they would shackle you to the truck. All these prejudiced guards would articulate a bunch of crap to you. They had been ignorant, too. I’ve in mind one day we had been out doing a bridge job. At lunch fracture, I became once sitting there talking to the guard. He had a can and he opened it with a knife. I saw him commence that will presumably perchance and originate up consuming out of it. It became once a can of pet food that looked bask in corned-pork hash.
I said to him, “Howdy, boss, what are you consuming that pet food for?” He said, “Oh, that’s my wife. I knowledgeable her about mixing the dog cans up with the food!” I mediate he couldn’t learn.
The food for the inmates became once dreadful. They served a dish they called “shit on a shingle.” It became once ground pork scraps with white gravy and they’d give it to you on a board. Every prison you’d dart to had that. We ate slightly a number of beans, too. One day, there became once a rat in the beans. He became once in the pot, cooked with the beans, white beans. I said, “Boss, there’s a rat in these beans.” And he said, “At the least you received meat!”
And that’s the capacity it became once. It became once valid that snide. I didn’t eat those beans after I saw that rat, but I became once consuming them ahead of that. You had to interrogate atrocious food. It wasn’t neat. The food became once crap, but you had to eat something to dwell.
I labored laborious that first 12 months, digging ditches and breaking rocks. Generally you don’t mediate you might perchance presumably perchance be ready to create it. It gave the impression bask in they wished to create the work laborious. They wished to create things as laborious as most likely for you.
They had a massive vat at the camp, constructed out of picket and tin, a number of feet deep. It became once filled up with creosote. They would put poles and cleave trees in there to retain them from getting nasty. One day, a guard walked up to this baby and pushed him in the creosote bin. I’m telling you, that baby became once burning. His pores and skin became once falling off. He became once true scarred after that. He lived, but he became once messed up. He looked bask in he received burnt in a hearth.
I felt so atrocious for that guy. He already had only one peer. After that, at any time when he thought something else became once going to happen to him—oh, my God, he would valid faucet-dance all over the space, actually. His nickname became once Frog. Frog became once a guy that became once timid of white other folk. Accept as true with you ever viewed a Gloomy person faucet-dance in front of white other folk valid to monitor humbleness? Frog might perchance presumably perchance perchance even dance on his fingers. He might perchance presumably perchance perchance stand on his fingers and dance. That became once his strategy of showing humbleness, and the guards liked it. The psychological cruelty might perchance presumably perchance perchance also merely were worse than the physical cruelty. Other inmates would glimpse that fashion of component and it made them humble, too. The guards might perchance presumably perchance perchance inform or construct the leisure to them.
It became once at Morgan that I became once first presented to the sweatbox. They put you in this picket field, the save you might perchance presumably perchance be ready to’t come up and in addition you might perchance presumably perchance be ready to’t sit down. You’re in a crouch. You might perchance presumably perchance even’t glimpse out. It’s dark other than for sunlight hours coming in thru the cracks, and it’s true sizzling in there—sweating sizzling. They retain you in there anywhere from three to seven days. You utilize the lavatory on your self. When they’re ready to enable you out, they pull you out, strip you naked, and put you in a miniature space with a fence the save they turn a water hose on you, bask in a hearth hose, to neat you.
They didn’t must have a reason to avoid losing you in the sweatbox. I mean, they would procure some reason—bask in in the occasion you had been in the ditch and in addition you weren’t digging valid, you weren’t the utilize of the shovel bask in they thought you might perchance presumably perchance even merely composed, or you talked lend a hand—but their reason wasn’t worth the leisure. They valid wished to be merciless to you. I had been thru so powerful in my lifestyles ahead of I went to the chain gang. Let me allow you to clutch, I could perchance presumably perchance perchance have interaction slightly a number of cruelty and continue to exist. But when I became once there in the sweatbox I became once timid I became once going to lose my mind. In the sweatbox, your mind is talking to you constantly. I’m considering, Am I going to truly lose it? Am I broken? I’ve in mind being scared the guards might perchance presumably perchance perchance near and throw some gas in there and atomize me. I had never viewed that happen, but there had been constantly sudden things taking place, and I knew I became once a guy that the administration didn’t care too powerful about. They didn’t bask in my thoughts.
The sweatbox became once there for a reason, and I mediate that reason became once to fracture you. They didn’t desire you to talk lend a hand. They didn’t desire you to divulge the leisure to other inmates that will presumably perchance perchance motive them to be disobedient. So they would crack you upside the head and throw you in the sweatbox. That’s section of the cruelty you fight thru for being Gloomy. Up except the later days, I believed the chain gang became once designed valid for Gloomy other folk. Later, I saw some white guys fight thru there, too, but the white guys on the chain gang couldn’t have interaction the cruelty bask in the Gloomy guys might perchance presumably perchance perchance. They would try to bustle away and they’d get shot. Gloomy guys wouldn’t have interaction a probability on that. Due to the white prisoners had been a threat to bustle, the guards would shackle them to each and every other. The white boys truly turned the prison camp true into a series gang.
For some reason, I felt I could perchance presumably perchance perchance resist. I had been in the sweatbox dozens of times, and I began to mediate to myself, There’s slightly a number of strength in the sweatbox. By some capacity the strength must be taken a ways off from the sweatbox. How can the strength be taken from it? There became once a miniature door in the front of the sweatbox. Twice a day, they would commence that door and push in a cup of water and two slices of bread. I made up my mind I wasn’t going to eat the bread or drink the water. I became once considering that if I didn’t drink that water or eat that bread I wouldn’t fulfill their ego, you realize, them considering, I received this nigger in the sweatbox and I’m treating him bask in an animal. I’m treating him worse than my dog.
I ticket that seeing that note written flat out on the page might perchance presumably perchance perchance also merely afflict some other folk. My hope is that they will on the subject of ticket why it’s there. As a younger person, I became once called a nigger so over and over I answered to it bask in it became once nothing. That’s what came about. My legend won’t be as clear if I block out the note or even commerce a single letter. A substitute doesn’t carry the same construct. To me, meaning it isn’t the same note. I’ve received to make utilize of the note valid bask in I’ve heard it said so over and over in my lifestyles. I mediate about all the other folk who went to their graves because they didn’t are looking to be called a nigger. Some other folk died because they wouldn’t put up with it. They had been killed. I desire the reader to ticket the construct it carries in the occasion you utilize that note and how degrading it is. I are looking to content about how being called that affected me, and I desire the reader to ticket that what came about to me became once now now not so long in the past.
You understand, when they self-discipline that water and that bread up there in the sweatbox, that bread looked bask in a portion of cake. It looked appropriate. I wished to eat it so atrocious. I wished to drink that water so atrocious. But I would mess my opinion up if I did. So I didn’t eat or drink and I took the strength out of the sweatbox. That’s what I felt bask in I had done. I wished other inmates to explore that, too. I felt bask in if other inmates saw me have interaction the strength then they would construct it, too. But when the guards mentioned the sweatbox to them they would get so humble. They would construct a faucet dance now to now not pass. They would construct all kinds of passe loopy things looking to meet the guards. I didn’t. I did what I wished to construct and I accomplished my feat.
Now, on the capacity to the sweatbox, the guards would hit you with their gloves and things in front of everybody. I didn’t desire the other inmates to explore them doing that to me, so if I did something that made me mediate I could perchance presumably perchance perchance be despatched there—if I disobeyed when I became once working or I didn’t construct something to the guards’ liking, and I knew they had been going to lock me up—I would dart and stand beside the sweatbox and preserve up for them to avoid losing me in. I wouldn’t preserve up for the guards to return and get me. I wouldn’t let them march me previous the other inmates. After I did that three or four times, the warden came out and said to me, “Nigger, get a ways off from the sweatbox. You might perchance presumably perchance even’t predict what I’m gonna construct.” To the other guards, he said, “That nigger’s loopy.” And wager what? I never went to the sweatbox another day.
I seen I couldn’t be what the officials had been waiting for of me. You received to avoid losing that in your head so they can’t fracture you. They are looking to fracture you. In the occasion you’re now now not broken, they inform you’re loopy. That’s what they determined I became once. They called me a loopy nigger.
The chain gang is one of the most ruthless places in the world. The command owns prisoners, so there are suggestions and regulations, but the county owns the chain gang, and there are no suggestions and regulations. The guards don’t care what you construct, so there’s more stress on you to be atrocious. Inmates put stress on you to fight. They might perchance presumably perchance perchance capacity you with one of their shanks—hand-crafted knives that they conceal in their bunk—or they’ll block you when it’s time to pass to the mess hall, or per chance they’ll turn over your plate. When they construct that, you received to jump on them valid then and there. In the occasion you don’t fight, you’re going to get that every and every one the time. You received to fight. And I mean you’ve received to truly fight. You might perchance presumably perchance even merely must intention blood. I never had a weapon. I’d utilize my fingers and my feet. The knuckles on my valid hand are rough, even at the present time, because that became once my punching hand. I additionally did slightly a number of kicking and stomping with my chain-gang boots. If I get you down on the ground—you’re stomped.
It gave the impression to me the aim of the chain gang became once to create you atrocious, to create you construct atrocious things. That’s the Winfred I didn’t are looking to be. I confirmed meanness as a survival instrument. I would most regularly construct loopy things to other folk. I had to fight thru a lot to monitor myself as somebody who couldn’t be bullied. I would inform things bask in “I would lose my lifestyles, but I’m now now not going to be bullied,” and I would mean it. I had to have interaction on all these personalities. I only wished to be one of them, but the one I wished to be I couldn’t be.
There had been potentially more appropriate guys on the chain gang than atrocious. Even the ones that attempted to bully me had been looking to conceal the appropriate aspect of themselves. There’s slightly a number of demands on you as a prisoner on the chain gang: “Howdy, nigger, get over right here with a shovel. Dig that pipe out.” It’s essential to construct it or you’ll dart to the sweatbox, and in addition you’ll want to always acknowledge in the formulation the guards are looking to hear, rather than how you positively truly feel. It’s essential to play a role that isn’t truly you. It’s bask in slavery. It’s essential to meet all those demands and retain a approach to your self as nicely. You don’t are looking to be identified with any of the roles you’ll want to always play, so you are all of them. It’s bask in all of you and everybody else around you are all tied up into one.
“All Me”—that’s how I painted it. Every person in the characterize has a role to play. I didn’t are looking to play any of the ingredients, but I wished to be somebody. I couldn’t stroll around and be no one, so I turned all of them. It’s bask in I became once more than one person inner myself. In point of truth, I mediate if I hadn’t determined to play the all me role on the chain gang I wouldn’t have made it. Taking that stance—all me—saved me. Everybody thought I became once loopy. The guards and the inmates, too: That nigger loopy! One component is for determined—when inmates mediate you’re loopy, you might perchance presumably perchance be ready to continue to exist. They won’t mess with you. And when officials mediate you’re loopy, you’ll never dart to the sweatbox.
We had been in the ditch. It became once the first time I became once ever in a ditch that deep. I’d been transferred to a neighborhood called Bainbridge. This Bainbridge predominant some workers for digging ditches, and I became once one of the guys they determined to ship. We labored laborious in Bainbridge. You’d come up at about 6 a.m., and the component would dart out around seven-thirty. We would near in at four, you’d have interaction your shower, and in addition you’d wait except you had been called for supper. We labored so laborious that most regularly I lay down on my bed to lend a hand my turn in the shower and the subsequent component I knew they had been locking us up for the night time.
You’re down in the ditch and in addition you received a shovel and in addition you’re digging. The object became once to throw that dust up on prime, out of the ditch, the save there are already colossal piles of dust, ten or twelve feet excessive. That’s what they’re waiting for of you, and in the occasion you might perchance presumably perchance be ready to’t get your dust up there, they received a accomplishing with you. They crack you upside the head. You don’t even know they’re coming and they crack you upside the head with those nightsticks in the occasion you don’t get that dust up there. And in the occasion you came about to dig true into a hornet’s nest, or near upon a rattlesnake or a water moccasin, you’d must address it. You couldn’t bustle or you might perchance presumably perchance perchance get shot. I saw slightly a number of bee stings, but I became once lucky ample never to hit a hornet’s nest. We additionally had to dwelling red ants. That you can dig true into a pile of them, and they had been dreadful. They’d dart up your pant leg, and it became once bask in they determined they wouldn’t bite you one by one. They’d pile up on your leg, and it gave the impression bask in they would wait and sting you all at the same time. I assume one of them despatched a signal.
Generally the water in the ditch became once up previous your ankles and in addition you’d composed must dig. I’ve in mind considering that Georgia had a legislation the save prisoners weren’t supposed to must work when it became once below thirty-two levels, but it indubitably became once a legislation that became once valid a legislation. They didn’t care about regulations in the occasion you had been working on the chain gang. In the cool weather, you’d come up on that ice and in addition you’d fracture thru and dart valid down into that chilly water. I saw other folk’s toes get loopy messed up with frostbite. And, in the occasion you had been shovelling, that chilly, soiled water received all over your clothes.
In the summer season, it became once sizzling. Can you imagine how sizzling a Georgia summer season is anyway, without you being in a twelve-foot ditch? And also you are now now not valid in a ditch—you are shovelling. Can you imagine how sizzling that is? You don’t get any air. Anyone would fart in that ditch and in addition that you just can smell it for the subsequent forty-five minutes.
If someone had to pass to the lavatory, they’d inform the note: “Getting over right here, boss.” That meant you had to have interaction a crap. The guard would inform, “Come on up. Rep over there.” You’d near up out of the ditch, dart twenty or thirty feet away, and construct what you had to construct. Then, if the guard became once a mean guard, he’d inform, “Ship some lend a hand on the shovel.” That became once to monitor you had to pass. That’s the ditch. Ain’t that loopy?
With my paintings, I attempted to create a atrocious situation explore appropriate. You might perchance presumably perchance even’t create the chain gang explore appropriate in any capacity in addition to by inserting it in art work. These murky and white stripes explore appropriate on canvas. Other folks can’t truly verbalize what they are except they come up close. They don’t look those stripes as other folk except they have interaction a true appropriate explore. That became once my aim—to put it apart down so you might perchance presumably perchance be ready to’t ticket it except you have interaction a true up-close explore. That tells you something about prison lifestyles. Once you happen to explore at it from the exterior, you might perchance presumably perchance be ready to’t glimpse what’s going on, but in the occasion you’re up close you ticket what you’re up in opposition to. ♦